EXTRAORDINARY Information and Facts!

This venomous lionfish petty much has—its red-and-white zebra stripes, long, showy pectoral fins.

The venom of the lionfish, delivered via an array of up to 18 needle-like dorsal fins, is purely defensive. It relies on camouflage and lightning-fast reflexes to capture prey, mainly fish and shrimp. If attacked, a lionfish delivers a potent venom via its needle-like dorsal fins. Its sting is extremely painful to humans and can cause nausea and breathing difficulties, but is rarely fatal.

ionfish, also called turkey fish, dragon fish and scorpion fish, are native to the reefs and rocky crevices of the Indo-Pacific, although they've found their way to warm ocean habitats worldwide.The largest of lionfish can grow to about 15 inches (0.4 meters) in length, but the average is closer to 1 foot (0.3 meters).

Lionfish are popular in some parts of the world as food, but are far more prized in the aquarium trade. Their population numbers are healthy and their distribution is growing.



  • The Blue Whale is the largest creature ever to have lived on earth.
  • Their tongues alone can weigh as much as an elephant. Their hearts, as much as a car.
  • Amazingly, however, this giant of the ocean feeds on some of the smallest marine life – tiny shrimplike animals called krill. A single adult blue whale can consume 3,6000kg of krill a day.
  • They mainly catch their food by diving, and descend to depths of approximately 500m.
  • Although the blue whale is a deep-water hunter, as a mammal, it must come to the surface of the sea to breathe.  When it surfaces, it exhales air out of a blowhole in a cloud of pressurized vapour that rises vertically above the water for up to 9m.
  • Blue whales occasionally swim in small groups but usually alone or in pairs. They are thought to form close attachments.
  • In spite of their bulk, these graceful swimmers cruise the ocean at over 8km/h, and can reach speeds of over 30km/h.
  • A baby blue whale (calf) emerges weighing up to 2,7000kg and up to 8m long. New born whales are helped to the surface of the water by their mothers and are often encouraged (nudged) by other females so that they can take their first breath of air. 
  • The calf is suckled in the water, drinking more than 600 litres of milk each day and gaining about 90kg every day for its first year.
  • Blue whales have few predators but are known to fall victim to attacks by sharks and killer whales, and many are injured or die each year from impacts with large ships.
  • It is thought that whales feel emotions.


The Venus flytrap is a type of flowering plant that is best known for exhibiting carnivory. The “trap” is made of two hinged lobes at the end of each leaf. On the inner surface of the lobes are hair-like projections called trichomes that cause the lobes to snap shut when prey comes in contact with them. This type of movement is called thigmonasty – a nondirectional plant response to being touched. To prevent the plant from wasting energy if prey isn’t actually there, the trap will only shut when the trichomes are touched multiple times.The lifespan of the Venus flytrap isn’t known for certain, but it’s been estimated to live up to 20 years, possibly longer.It grows in moist, acidic soil which may be poor in nutrients. Venus flytraps need an open understory (the part of the forest below the canopy) to live. Part of what keeps the understory open is natural fires that sweep through and burn away parts of trees and shrubs.enus flytraps are perennial plants, meaning that they bloom year after year. The flowers are white in color with green veins running from the base of the petal toward the edges. Pollinated flowers eventually give rise to seeds.Like all plants, the Venus flytrap gets its energy from the sun in a process called photosynthesis. It digests insects and arachnids to get nutrients that are not available in the surrounding environment.


Our solar system makes up an extremely tiny part of the Milky Way. If you imagine our solar system were the size of a US quarter, the entire Milky Way would be almost half the size of the United States! The milky way is made up of over 200 billion stars, dust and gas. The oldest star in the milky way is aged about 13 billion years. That’s almost as old as the universe itself. At the center of the milky way lies the black hole called Sagittarius A. It contains the mass of about 4 million suns. We don’t have to worry much though because it is about 250,000,000,000,000,000 kilometers away.The Milky Way is but one of billions of galaxies in the universe.The Milky Way is part of a cluster of about 40 galaxies called the ‘Local’ group, including two large spiral galaxies, the Milky Way and Andromeda. All other galaxies making up this ‘Local’ group are pretty small compared to the Big 2.Andromeda Galaxy is approaching our galaxy at a speed of140 kilometers per second which means Milky Way galaxy may collide with Andromeda in 3 to 4 billion years! The milky way is is a spiral galaxy, shaped like a huge whirlpool coiling around a central bulge like a disk. The disk is about 100,000 light years in diameter (one light year is about 9.5 x 1015 meters), but only about 1000 light years thick.The milky way galaxy rotates clockwise at a speed of 190 miles a second . This means that the space you were sitting in one second ago, is now 330 miles away from you. At this speed it takes the milky way 200 million years to rotate once.Like other galaxies, the Milky Way is growing by absorbing small satellite galaxies. It is currently merging with the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, a process that will be completed in about 100 million years.The sun orbits the center of the milky way. The sun has completed about 16 rotations around the galaxy and is expected to complete 16 more before it runs out of steam!



There are two North Poles. The north terrestrial pole is the fixed point that forms the axis on which the Earth spins and the north magnetic pole, to which compass needles point from all over the Earth-it changes daily.There is no land beneath the ice of the North Pole. The Arctic ice cap is a shifting pack of sea ice which is 2-3 meters thick floating above the 4,000-meter-deep Arctic Ocean.During the winter the Arctic ice pack grows to the size of the United States. In the summer half of the ice disappears.

While Arctic ice is always dynamic—increasing during winter and shrinking during summer—during recent decades the ice cap has been shrinking in both times in thickness due to global warming.



It is the only planet that has an atmosphere containing 21 percent oxygen.It is the only planet that has liquid water on its surface.It is the only planet in the solar system that has life.The Earth is the only inner planet (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) to have one large satellite, the Moon.  Mars has two very tiny moons.  Mercury and Venus have none.The Earth is fragile.  Its surface is split into plates (tectonic plates) which float on a rocky mantle – the layer between the surface of the earth, its crust, and its hot liquid core.  The inside of the Earth is active and earthquakes, volcanoes and mountain building takes place along the boundaries of the tectonic plates. As a result of the Earth’s geological activity (the volcanoes and earthquakes) the surface of the Earth has far fewer craters than the surface of planets such as Mars, Venus and Mercury or the surface of the Moon.  The craters have sunk down or been worn away by wind and rain over millions of years. 

A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends surges of water, sometimes reaching heights of over 100 feet (30.5 meters), onto land. These walls of water can cause widespread destruction when they crash ashore.These awe-inspiring waves are typically caused by large, undersea earthquakes at tectonic plate boundaries. When the ocean floor at a plate boundary rises or falls suddenly it displaces the water above it and launches the rolling waves that will become a tsunami.

Tsunamis may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions. They may even be launched, as they frequently were in Earth’s ancient past, by the impact of a large meteorite plunging into an ocean.Tsunamis race across the sea at up to 500 miles (805 kilometers) an hour—about as fast as a jet airplane. At that pace they can cross the entire expanse of the Pacific Ocean in less than a day. And their long wavelengths mean they lose very little energy along the way.



Sir Isaac Newton was born in the county of Lincolnshire, England in 1643. His father died just months before he was born, and when he was three years old, his mother left him in the care of his grandmother. Isaac was always a top student, and went off to the University of Cambridge at age 19. While at Cambridge, Newton was influenced by the writings of Galileo, Nicholas Copernicus, and Johannes Kepler. By 1665, Newton began developing a mathematical theory that would lead to the development of calculus, one of the fundamental branches of mathematics. Newton would go on to discover other important math theories such as Newton’s Identities, and Newton’s Method.In 1670, Newton moved on to the study of optics and developed theories relating to the composition of white light and the spectrum of colors. In one of his famous experiments, he refracted white light with a prism, resolving it into its constituent colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. As a result of his experiments, he developed Newton’s Theory of Color, which claimed that objects appear certain colors because they absorb and reflect different amounts of light. Newton was the first scientist to maintain that color was determined solely by light.He also dscovered gravity and invented the 3 laws of motion

1.An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

This law is often called "the law of inertia".

2.Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object).

3.For every action and is an equal and opposite re-action.


  • The Taj Mahal is a famous mausoleum in India.

  • A mausoleum is a building that contains burial chambers (tombs) for the deceased, they can be large or small and are often created in honor of influential people.

  • The Taj Mahal is located in Agra, a city in the Uttar Pradesh region of northern India.

  • It was built as the final resting place for Mumtaz Mahal, the third wife of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

  • The name Taj Mahal means “crown of palaces”.

  • Construction of the Taj Mahal took around 20 years, beginning around 1632 and finishing around 1653.

  • The Taj Mahal is made of white marble.

  • One of the Taj Mahal’s most recognizable features is a large white dome that is often called an ‘onion dome’ due to its shape. It has a height of around 35 metres (115 feet) and is surrounded by 4 smaller domes.

  • The full height of the Taj Mahal is 171 metres (561 feet).


  • The Taj Mahal is considered to be one of India’s most admired works of art, as well as a famous landmark and a tourist attraction that draws millions of visitors every year.

  • The Taj Mahal complex includes a large garden, a reflecting pool, a mosque and other mausoleums.
  • After building the taj mahal, Shah Jahan had the workers hands cut off so that no one could build another building at beautiful as it.



Late in the night on April 14th, 1912 the Titanic hit an iceberg and ended up sinking early in the morning on April 15th, 1912.

♦ The exact number of people who lost their lives from the titanic sinking is not 100% accurate because they know there were many that were not listed on the ships manifest.

♦ They think there were about 2,222 passengers on the titanic when it hit the iceberg. There were 1,517 people that lost their lives and 715 survived.

♦One of the largest mistakes that the Titanic made was thinking it was unsinkable. This confidence in the ship led them to make the decision to not put enough lifeboats on the Titanic. They only had enough room to get half of the ships people on a lifeboat. There were 16 boats that held 65 each which comes to 1,040. With all the craziness and panic, many lifeboats left with only a few people on board. If all lifeboats would have been filled correctly, over 1,000 could have been saved.

♦The titanic was on it’s first voyage when it hit the iceberg off the coast of Newfoundland and sank in the Atlantic Ocean. It was traveling from Southhampton England to New York City.



At an average height of around 5 m (16-18 ft.), the giraffe is the tallest land animal in the world.

Characterized by its long legs, long neck, and distinctive spotted pattern, many people first believed the giraffe was a cross between a leopard and a camel, which is reflected in its scientific name, Giraffa camelopardalis.

Giraffes live primarily in savanna areas in the sub-Saharan region of Africa. Their extreme height allows them to eat leaves and shoots located much higher than other animals can reach. In particular, they seek out acacia trees. Their long tongues are helpful in eating because they help pull leaves from the trees. Spending most of the day eating, a full-grown giraffe consumes over 45 kg (100 lb.) of leaves and twigs a day.

The male giraffe is both taller and heavier than the female. Both sexes have skin-covered knobs, called ossicones, on the top of their heads. Female ossicones are smaller and have a small tuft of fur on top, while male ossicones are bald on the top. These knobs are used to protect the head when males fight, which involves swinging their necks at each other in a show of strength called “necking.”




 The cardinal is the only red bird in eastern North America with a crest on top of his or her head, which rises when the bird senses danger. Cardinals are not migratory and stay in the same area year-round. They form winter flocks with up to 60-70 birds. They eat many pest insects and disperse seeds. Male cardinals are very territorial and will defend their territories vigorously, sometimes attacking their own reflections or other objects reflected in glass surfaces, mistaking them for another male. They are admired as attractive songbirds and biologists have observed that some cardinal songs are sung with accents.



This photo of "Hercules, the World's Biggest Dog" is one of the best known "hoax" images on the Web. It started circulating in early 2007, initially on its own, but soon the Internet had supplied an explanatory caption:

Hercules: The World's Biggest Dog Ever According to Guinness World Records
Hercules was recently awarded the honorable distinction of Worlds Biggest Dog by Guinness World Records. Hercules is an English Mastiff and has a 38 inch neck and weighs 282 pounds.
With "paws the size of softballs", the three-year-old monster is far larger and heavier than his breed's standard 200lb. limit. Hercules owner Mr. Flynn says that Hercules weight is natural and not induced by a bizarre diet: "I fed him normal food and he just grew".... and grew. and grew.




Butterfly wings are transparent. We know butterflies as perhaps the most colorful, vibrant insects around! A butterfly wing is actually formed by layers of chitin, the protein that makes up an insect's exoskeleton. These layers are so thin you can see right through them.Butterflies taste with their feet.Taste receptors on a butterfly's feet help it  locate food. A female butterfly lands on different plants, drumming the leaves with her feet to make the plant release its juices.  Butterflies live on an all-liquid diet.Speaking of butterflies eating, adult butterflies can only feed on liquids, usually nectar. Their mouthparts are modified to enable them to drink, but they can't chew solids.A butterfly must assemble its proboscis as soon as it emerges from the chrysalis.A butterfly that can't drink nectar is doomed, so one of its first jobs as an adult butterfly is to make sure its mouthparts work. When a new adult emerges from the pupal case, or chrysalis, its mouth is in two pieces. Using palpi located adjacent to the proboscis, the butterfly begins working the two parts together to form a single, tubular proboscis. You may see a newly emerged butterfly curling and uncurling the proboscis over and over, testing it out.Butterflies drink from mud puddles.A butterfly cannot live on sugar alone; it needs minerals, too. To supplement its diet of nectar, a butterfly will occasionally sip from mud puddles, which are rich in minerals and salts. This behavior, called puddling, occurs more often in male butterflies, which incorporate the minerals into their sperm.Butterflies can't fly if they're cold.Butterflies need an ideal body temperature of about 85ºF to fly. Since they're cold-blooded animals, they can't regulate their own body temperatures.Butterflies live just 2-4 weeks, usually.A newly emerged butterfly can't fly.Butterflies employ all kinds of tricks to keep from being eaten.Butterflies are nearsighted, but they can see and discriminate a lot of colors.



Adam's Bridge (Tamil: ஆதாம் பாலம் ātām pālam), also known as Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu (Tamil: இராமர் பாலம் Irāmar pālam, Sanskrit: रामसेतु, rāmasetu), is a chain of limestone shoals, between Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, off the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka. Geological evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka.

The bridge is 18 miles (30 km) long and separates the Gulf of Mannar (southwest) from the Palk Strait (northeast). Some of the sandbanks are dry and the sea in the area is very shallow, being only 3 ft to 30 ft (1 m to 10 m) deep in places, which hinders navigation. It was reportedly passable on foot up to the 15th century until storms deepened the channel: temple records seem to say that Rama’s Bridge was completely above sea level until it broke in a cyclone in AD 1480.

The bridge was first mentioned in the ancient Indian Sanskrit epic Ramayana of Valmiki. The name Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu (Sanskrit; setu: bridge) refers to the bridge built by the Vanara (ape men) army of Lord Rama in Hindu theology with instructions from Nala[8] which he used to reach Lanka and rescue his wife Sita from the Rakshasa king, Ravana. The Ramayana attributes the building of this bridge to Rama in verse 2-22-76, naming it as Setubandhanam, a name that persists until today.

The sea separating India and Sri Lanka is called Sethusamudram meaning "Sea of the Bridge". Maps prepared by a Dutch cartographer in 1747, available at the Tanjore Saraswathi Mahal Library show this area as Ramancoil, a colloquial form of the Tamil Raman Kovil (or Rama's Temple). Another map of Mughal India prepared by J. Rennel in 1788 retrieved from the same library called this area as "the area of the Rama Temple", referring to the temple dedicated to Lord Rama at Rameswaram. Many other maps in Schwartzberg's historical atlas and other sources such as travel texts by Marco Polo call this area by various names such as Sethubandha and Sethubandha Rameswaram.

Adam's Bridge starts as chain of shoals from the Dhanushkodi tip of India's Pamban Island and ends at Sri Lanka's Mannar Island. Pamban Island is semi-connected to the Indian mainland by 2 km long Pamban Bridge. Mannar Island is connected to mainland Sri Lanka by a causeway. The border between India and Sri Lanka is said to pass across one of the shoals constituting one of the shortest land borders in the world.Adam's bridge and neighbouring areas like Rameswaram, Dhanushkodi, Devipattinam and Thirupullani are mentioned in the context of various legends in Ramayana.




  • Gold is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Au and its atomic number is 79.

  • Compared to other metals, gold is less chemically reactive.

  • Gold is a good conductor of electricity and heat.

  • Gold is shiny, soft and dense. It is also malleable, which means it can easily be beaten into thin sheets or other shapes.

  • Gold is malleable enough for just 1 gram to be hammered into a sheet 1 square meter in size. It can also be made so thin that it appears transparent.

  • Due to a similar appearance to gold, the mineral pyrite has the nickname fool’s gold.

  • The amount of gold in various alloys (a combination of gold and another metal such as silver) is measured in carats (k). Pure gold is 24k.

  • As of 2009, it has been estimated that humans have mined around 160000 tonnes of gold.

  • Over the last 100 years South Africa has been the biggest producer of gold. In recent times however it has been surpassed by China.

  • As of 2009, the USA has 8133 tonnes of gold reserves while Canada only has 3.

  • Throughout history gold has often been seen as a symbol of wealth.

  • Gold is the most popular precious metal for investments.

  • The price of gold continually fluctuates and is often linked to major economic events.


  • Over the years gold has been used to create expensive jewelry, coins and various forms of art such as the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun’s famous burial mask. In modern times it has also been used for things such as electronics and dentistry.

  • Injectable gold has been proven to help reduce pain and swelling in patients suffering from tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis.



  • Apples are the fruit of apple trees and are one of the most widely grown tree fruit.

  • Millions of tonnes of apples are grown every year.

  • There are thousands of different varieties of apples including Fuji, Gala, Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Pink Lady and Granny Smith.

  • Granny Smith apples originated in Australia in 1868 accidentally after a chance seedling by a woman named Maria Ann Smith.

  • While most apples are eaten fresh, they have other uses including juice making and cooking.

  • The apple tree originated in Central Asia.

  • China is the leading producer of apples.

  • Apples were taken to North America by European settlers.

  • Apple trees can be vulnerable to a number of different diseases and pests. Chemical sprays are often used to limit the damage but organic methods are also popular.

  • Honey bees are commonly used to pollinate apple trees.

  • Apple trees typically blossom in spring with fruit maturing in autumn.

  • Apple seeds contain a cyanide compound. Our body can handle small doses of this naturally occurring poison so you'd have to eat a huge number of seeds for it to have an effect, and even then the seeds are covered in a protective coating which keeps the cyanide compound safe inside.

  • An average apple contains around 130 calories.

  • It is believed that the saying "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" originated inWales in the 19th century. Sadly eating apples doesn't guarantee good health but they do have nutritional value and potential health benefits.

  • The apple genome was decoded in 2010



Komodo dragons are the biggest and heaviest lizards on Earth. Full-grown adults can reach 10 feet (3 meters) long and weigh more than 300 pounds (140 kilograms)! Most weigh about 150 pounds (70 kilograms). 
These giant reptiles have been around for millions of years, but scientists didn't study them until about a hundred years ago. Wild Komodo dragons are found only on Indonesia's Lesser Sunda Islands. 
They are powerful-looking reptiles with wide, flat heads, rounded snouts, bowed legs, and huge, muscular tails. They have a clumsy, back-and-forth walk, and their yellow tongues flick in and out constantly. 
The dominant predators on the islands where they live, Komodo dragons will eat almost anything they find, including already dead animals, deer, water buffalo, pigs, smaller Komodo dragons, and occasionally humans! When hunting, Komodo dragons rely on camouflage and patience, lying in bushes or tall grasses until a victim passes by. They pounce on their prey with powerful legs and sharp claws, then sink their jagged, sharklike teeth in. 
An animal that escapes the jaws of a Komodo won't feel lucky for long. Dragon saliva contains large amounts of bacteria, which poisons their victims, usually within 24 hours. Dragons will calmly follow their bitten prey for miles, using their keen sense of smell to find the corpse. They have huge appetites and have been known to eat up to 80 percent of their body weight in a single feeding. 
Female Komodo dragons lay up to 30 eggs, which they will guard for several months. Babies are greenish with yellow and black bands but become solid gray to reddish-brown as they age. Young dragons will stay in the trees until they are about eight months old to avoid predators, which include larger dragons.



  • Compared to other animals, dolphins are believed to be very intelligent.

  • Dolphins are carnivores (meat eaters).

  • The Killer Whale (also known as Orca) is actually a type of dolphin.

  • Bottlenose dolphins are the most common and well known type of dolphin.

  • Female dolphins are called cows, males are called bulls and young dolphins are called calves.

  • Dolphins live in schools or pods of up to 12 individuals.

  • Dolphins often display a playful attitude which makes them popular in human culture. They can be seen jumping out of the water, riding waves, play fighting and occasionally interacting with humans swimming in the water.

  • Dolphins use a blowhole on top of their heads to breathe.

  • Dolphins have excellent eyesight and hearing as well as the ability to use echolocation for finding the exact location of objects.

  • Dolphins communicate with each other by clicking, whistling and other sounds.

  • Some dolphin species face the threat of extinction, often directly as a result of human behavior. The Yangtze River Dolphin is an example of a dolphin species which may have recently become extinct.

  • Some fishing methods, such as the use of nets, kill a large number of dolphins every year.




Bacteria is the simplest of creatures that are considered alive. Bacteria is everywhere. They are in the bread you eat, the soil that plants grow in, and even inside of you. They are very simple cells that fall under the heading prokaryotic. That word means they do not have an organized nucleus. Bacteria are small single cells whose whole purpose in life is to replicate. 

Okay. So we've told you they don't have an organized nucleus. True. They do have DNA. It is grouped in an area called the nucleoid. They have cell membranes like other cells and even a protective cell wall. Mind you, their cell wall is not like the one in a plant. It's a special kind that bacteria have for protection. They don't have any organelles, just ribosomes. (These are all characteristics of prokaryotes if you remember.) 


  • There are around 372 different parrot species.

  • Most parrots live in tropical areas.

  • Parrots have curved bills,strong legs and clawed feet.
  • Parrots are often brightly coloured.

  • Parrots are believed to be one of the most intelligent

    bird species.

  • Some species are known for imitating human voices.

  • Most parrot species rely on seeds as food. Others

    may eat fruit, nectar, flowers or small insects.

  • Parrots such as the budgerigar (budgie) and cockatiel are

    popular as pets.

  • Some parrot species can live for over 80 years.

  • There are 21 different species of cockatoo.

  • Cockatoos usually have black, grey or white plumage


  • New Zealand is home to some very unique parrots including

    the kea, kaka and kakapo.

  • Keas are large, intelligent parrots that live in alpine areas

    of New Zealand’s South Island. They are the world’s only

    alpine parrot and are known for their curious and sometimes

    cheeky behaviour near ski fields where they like to

    investigate bags, steal small items and damage cars.

  • Kakapos are critically endangered flightless parrots, as of

    2010 only around 130 are known to exist. They are active at

    night (nocturnal) and feed on a range of seeds, fruit, plants

    and pollen. Kakapos are also the world’s heaviest parrot.

  • The flag of Dominica features the sisserou parrot.



Chocolate Comes from Cacao Plants

All the chocolate we eat comes from one rather special plant—the cacao (kah KOW) tree. These trees produce pods containing pulp-covered seeds. The seeds, once fermented and dried, are processed into chocolate.


Cacao trees thrive beneath the shady branches of taller trees in the rainforest. They won’t begin to bear fruit, however, until they are at least three to five years old.

Cacao trees produce flowers year-round. Tiny flies called midges pollinate these small flowers. Eventually, cacao pods will sprout from the trunk and branches of the tree.

Midges have the fastest wingbeat of any creature on earth—1,000 beats a second! They’re so small that they fit easily on the head of a straight pin.

A cacao pod contains about 30-50 almond-sized seeds—enough to make about seven milk chocolate candy bars!


  • A rainbow is a multi-colored arc that forms in the sky.

  • Rainbows are created by both reflection and refraction (bending) of light in water droplets in the atmosphere, which results in a spectrum of light appearing.

  • A rainbow is in fact a full circle of light. However, due to most people viewing a rainbow from the ground we only see a semi-circle or arc of the rainbow.

  • A rainbow is not situated at a specified distance, instead it will always be visible to a person at the precise angle freshwater droplets reflect the light which is 42 degrees in the opposite direction of the sun.

  • A rainbow is not an object, it cannot be approached or physically touched.

  • No two people see the same rainbow, in fact even our individual eyes see slightly different rainbows. If someone appears to be standing under a rainbow you can see, they will see a different rainbow at the same angle but further away.

  • Rainbows can be seen not just in rain but also mist, spray, fog, and dew, whenever there are water drops in the air and light shining from behind at the right angle.

  • Sir Isaac Newton identified the 7 colors of the visible spectrum that together make up white light. All of which are present in a rainbow in the order red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (the acronym, ROYGBIV or VIBGYOR is a good way to remember these colors).

  • Most rainbows we see will be a "primary rainbow" whereby the color red can be seen on the outer edge through to violet on the inner edge.

  • The sky within a primary rainbow is brighter than the sky outside of the arc. This is due to the fact that the millions of droplets needed to make a rainbow are spherical and overlap to create white light. At the edge however, these colored discs don't overlap so display their individual colors producing the rainbow arc.

  • A "double rainbow" is where a second, much fainter arc can be seen outside of the primary arc. This is caused by the light reflecting twice inside the water droplets. As a result of this double reflection the colors of the second arc are inverted with violet on the outer edge and red on the inner edge.

  • The dark, unlit sky between the primary arc and secondary arc is called Alexander's band, after Alexander of Aphrodisias who first described it in 200 AD.

  • Very rarely, light can be reflected 3 or 4 times within a water droplet which produces even fainter tertiary (third) and quaternary (fourth) rainbows in the direction of the sun.

  • A "moonbow" is a rare lunar rainbow or night time rainbow produced by light from the moon. Our eyes see it as white even though all colors are faintly present.

  • A "fogbow" is formed by cloud and fog droplets, they are almost white with very faint colors visible. Fogbows are quite large and much broader than a rainbow.


  • The word dinosaur comes from the Greek language and means ‘terrible lizard’. The word was coined by English paleontologist Richard Owen in 1842 and was meant to refer to Dinosaurs impressive size rather than their scary appearance.

  • Dinosaurs ruled the Earth for over 160 million years, from the Triassic period around 230 million years ago through the Jurassic period and until the end of the Cretaceous period around 65 million years ago.

  • The time period from 250 million years ago until around 65 million years ago is known as the Mesozoic Era. It is often referred to as the Age of the Dinosaurs because most dinosaurs developed and became extinct during this time.

  • It is believed that dinosaurs lived on Earth until around 65 million years ago when a mass extinction occurred.

  • Scientists believe that the event leading to the extinction may have been a massive asteroid impact or huge volcanic activity. Events such as these could have blocked out sunlight and significantly changed the Earth’s ecology.

  • The first dinosaur to be formally named was the Megalosaurus, back in 1824.

  • A person who studies dinosaurs is known as a paleontologist.

  • Rather than being carnivores (meat eaters), the largest dinosaurs such as the Brachiosaurus and Apatosaurus were actually herbivores (plant eaters).

  • To help fight meat eaters such as the Allosaurus or Spinosaurus, many plant eaters had natural weapons at their disposal. Examples of this include the spikes on the tail of the Stegosaurus and the three horns attached to the front of the Triceratops’s head shield.

  • Pterodactyls are not dinosaurs, they were flying reptiles that lived during the age of dinosaurs but by definition they do not fall into the same category. The same goes for water based reptiles such as Plesiosaurs.

  • Birds descended from a type of dinosaurs known as theropods.

  • Despite being long extinct, dinosaurs are frequently featured in the media. One of the more memorable examples of this is Michael Crichton’s 1990 book Jurassic Park. Adapted to movie in 1993, the story features cloned dinosaurs brought to life with the help of DNA found in mosquitoes trapped in amber.


The world's tallest tree, 379.1 feet tall, was discovered in 2006 in Humboldt Redwoods State Park. That's almost six stories taller than the Statue of Liberty!

Biomass accumulates to record levels. A redwood stand in Humboldt State Park in California provides the greatest biomass ever recorded, with a stem biomass of 1,544 tons/acre!!!
The oldest confirmed redwood tree is at least 2,200 years of age, but foresters believe that some may be much older!
Close ancestors of the coast redwoods date all the way back to the time of the dinosaurs - - more than 100 million years ago!
Coast redwoods are able to grow from only a seed to 100 feet tall in only 50 years! Some of these trees can grow 6 whole feet in only one year.
The average diameter of the largest living coast redwood is over 20 feet!
It would 
take 125,000 coast redwood seeds just to make a pound!


The tiger lily is a large orange flower that is covered with dark spots on its petals. The tiger lily can grow up to 3 inches across and has a strong, sweet scent. It's also called the "ditch lily," as it can be seen growing, wild, in ditches. If you are so inclined, it's good to know that this showy flower is edible. For this reason, they make beautiful wedding cake decorations, food presentations, and the bulbs are edible, as well.
There are two types of tiger lily: the common wildflower type and the oriental type. The oriental tiger lily must be planted by bulbs that can later be dug up and divided. The wildflower type grows from tuberous roots. The name of the tiger lily varies throughout the U.S. It is also known as Devil Lily, Leopard Lily, Columbia Lily, Oregon Lily, Western Wood Lily, Lilium Catesbaei, Chalice-Cup Lily and Lilium Tigrinum.

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